The U.S. government should consider a broad range of retaliations against Russia for its attempts to interfere with November’s presidential election, the outgoing director of national intelligence recommended.

The default response to cyberattacks shouldn’t necessarily be a cyber one, intelligence director James Clapper said Thursday. “We should consider all instruments of national power,” he told a Senate committee. “We currently cannot put a lot of stock … in cyber deterrence. Unlike nuclear weapons, cyber capabilities are difficult to see and evaluate and are ephemeral.”

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